In order to explore the anisotropic permeability of raw coal under low stress, taking the coal samples of Zhangcun Coal Mine, Tingnan Coal Mine and Xinjing Coal Mine as the research objects, using the improved triaxial seepage test device, the permeability tests under constant confining pressure and variable pore pressure along the direction of coal sample face cleat, butt cleat and vertical bedding were carried out. The results show that under the same confining pressure and axial pressure, the flow through the coal sample increases with the increase of osmotic pressure difference. Under the same osmotic pressure difference, the flow is closely related to the direction of seepage. The permeability in the face cleat direction is slightly larger than that in the butt cleat direction and much larger than that in the vertical bedding direction under the same average pore pressure. There is little difference in permeability between face cleat and butt cleat under low stress. It is not accident that the permeability in parallel bedding plane is similar, and the permeability of coal has the characteristics of transverse isotropy. The increase of coal stress is the main reason for the difference of permeability between butt cleat and face cleat.