In order to grasp the research status of biological CBM, the distribution, trend and research content of papers related with biological CBM were analyzed by bibliometrics and literature review. In recent years, the exploration of biological CBM and the study of microbial diversity in CBM fields have gradually decreased as the cumulative number of papers has tended to flat. However, the cumulative number of papers on microbial degradation of coal is increasing year by year, which is the current research hotspot. The research of cultivation experiment mainly focuses on the formation mechanism of biological CBM and the theory and technology to increase biomethane production. Microorganisms, coal, and intermediate metabolites are the key to elucidate the formation mechanism of biological CBM. The production of biomethane has been effectively increased by cultivating efficient functional microflora, modifying coal structure by chemical treatment, and activating microorganisms by exogenous substances. However, the research time of biological CBM is relatively short, and the research on its formation mechanism and production-increasing technology are still in the initial stage. In the future, new technologies such as microbiology, chemistry, and mechanics are needed to clarify the formation mechanism of biological CBM, develop new production-increasing technologies, promote the development and industrial application of MECoM and the sustainable development of CBM industry.